The Resource Bush Administration policy regarding congressionally originated earmarks : an overview, Clinton T. Brass, Garrett L. Hatch, and R. Eric Petersen

Bush Administration policy regarding congressionally originated earmarks : an overview, Clinton T. Brass, Garrett L. Hatch, and R. Eric Petersen

Label
Bush Administration policy regarding congressionally originated earmarks : an overview
Title
Bush Administration policy regarding congressionally originated earmarks
Title remainder
an overview
Statement of responsibility
Clinton T. Brass, Garrett L. Hatch, and R. Eric Petersen
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
During the 110th Congress, the House of Representatives, the Senate, and the George W. Bush Administration have defined terms like congressional earmark, congressionally directed spending item, and earmark, and have provided some direction for how congressionally originated earmarks, according to these definitions, are to be handled. This report focuses on Bush Administration policy regarding earmarks originated by Congress and related issues. Specific definitions for the term earmark (and related terms, like congressional earmark, presidential earmark, and others) vary considerably and are controversial. Nevertheless, all of the terms relate to the use of discretion to allocate particularized benefits to one or more specific purposes, entities, or geographic areas. Some earmarks have the force of law, and others do not. Practices like earmarking have been used for decades, if not centuries, to make decisions regarding the allocation of public resources, but concerns also have been expressed. At the same time, Congress, its Members, and Presidents have asserted the prerogatives of their constitutional and statutory authorities and pursued their budget policy preferences. In January 2008, the President announced he would veto future appropriations bills that did not cut the number and funding of Administration-identified earmarks by half, relative to FY2008. The President also issued Executive Order (E.O.) 13457, which directed that agencies "should not" fund non-statutory earmarks, except under some conditions. These are the latest in a series of developments that began in January 2007, when the President proposed that Congress should (1) cut the number and funding of congressionally originated earmarks by at least half for FY2008 appropriations, relative to FY2005, and (2) place them only in statutory text, not report language. In January 2007, the Administration issued its own definition of earmark, whose language (and perhaps meaning) evolved over time in Office of Management and Budget (OMB) memoranda. A final definition appears to have been established in E.O. 13457, but its meaning probably is informed by the evolution and contents of previously articulated definitions. Later, OMB established an "Earmarks" website, containing a database of Administration-identified earmarks, to track congressional action. Potential related issues for Congress involve, generally, roles and responsibilities for Congress, the President, agencies, and the public in the U.S. political system; defining, identifying, and overseeing earmarks; the executive order; the "Earmarks" website and database; and potential representational consequences. This report emphasizes analysis of E.O. 13457. For a legal analysis of E.O. 13457, see CRS Report RL34373, Earmarks Executive Order: Legal Issues, by Thomas J. Nicola and T.J. Halstead. This report will be updated as events warrant
Member of
Cataloging source
EJB
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Brass, Clinton T
Government publication
federal national government publication
Index
no index present
LC call number
KF5053
LC item number
.T38 2008
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
dictionaries
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
  • Hatch, Garrett Leigh
  • Petersen, R. Eric
  • Library of Congress
Series statement
CRS report for Congress
Series volume
RL34648
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Executive power
  • Executive orders
  • Legislative power
  • Legislative veto
  • United States
  • Executive orders
  • Executive power
  • Expenditures, Public
  • Legislative power
  • Legislative veto
  • United States
Label
Bush Administration policy regarding congressionally originated earmarks : an overview, Clinton T. Brass, Garrett L. Hatch, and R. Eric Petersen
Instantiates
Publication
Note
  • "September 4, 2008."
  • Title from title screen (viewed Sept. 18, 2008)
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
mixed
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
31 unnumbered pages
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Note
Hein Online
Other physical details
digital, PDF file.
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (OCoLC)252784817
  • (OCoLC)ocn252784817
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader
Label
Bush Administration policy regarding congressionally originated earmarks : an overview, Clinton T. Brass, Garrett L. Hatch, and R. Eric Petersen
Publication
Note
  • "September 4, 2008."
  • Title from title screen (viewed Sept. 18, 2008)
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
mixed
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
31 unnumbered pages
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Note
Hein Online
Other physical details
digital, PDF file.
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (OCoLC)252784817
  • (OCoLC)ocn252784817
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader

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