The Resource Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program

Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program

Label
Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program
Title
Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program
Contributor
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
Mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar emits pulses of sound from an underwater transmitter to help determine the size, distance, and speed of objects. The sound waves bounce off objects and reflect back to underwater acoustic receivers as an echo. MFA sonar has been used since World War II, and the Navy finds it the only reliable way to track submarines, especially more recently designed submarines that operate more quietly, making them more difficult to detect. Scientists have found that sonar may harm certain marine mammals under certain conditions, especially beaked whales. Depending on the exposure, the sonar may damage the ears of the mammals, causing hemorrhaging and/or disorientation. The Navy agrees that the sonar may harm some marine mammals, but says it has taken protective measures so that animals are not harmed. MFA testing must comply with a variety of environmental laws, unless an exemption is granted by the appropriate authority. Marine mammals are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and some under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The training program must also comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and in some cases the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). Each of these laws has provisions where a federal action may be exempted from compliance. The Navy has invoked all of the exemptions to continue its sonar training exercises
Cataloging source
DTICE
Index
no index present
Literary form
non fiction
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
  • Alexander, Kristina
  • LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Aquatic animals
  • Acoustic detectors
  • Biological oceanography
  • Acoustic detection and detectors
  • United states government
  • Reliability
  • Protection
  • Transmitters
  • Whales
  • Environmental law
  • Military training
  • Underwater acoustics
  • Submarines
  • Sonar
  • Physiological disorientation
Target audience
adult
Label
Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program
Instantiates
Publication
Note
Congressional rept
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Dimensions
23 x 29 cm
Extent
19 pages
Form of item
online
Governing access note
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Note
Hein Online
System control number
  • (OCoLC)318683484
  • (OCoLC)ocn318683484
Label
Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program
Publication
Note
Congressional rept
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Dimensions
23 x 29 cm
Extent
19 pages
Form of item
online
Governing access note
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Note
Hein Online
System control number
  • (OCoLC)318683484
  • (OCoLC)ocn318683484

Library Locations

  • African Studies LibraryBorrow it
    771 Commonwealth Avenue, 6th Floor, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.350723 -71.108227
  • Alumni Medical LibraryBorrow it
    72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA, 02118, US
    42.336388 -71.072393
  • Astronomy LibraryBorrow it
    725 Commonwealth Avenue, 6th Floor, Boston, MA, 02445, US
    42.350259 -71.105717
  • Fineman and Pappas Law LibrariesBorrow it
    765 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.350979 -71.107023
  • Frederick S. Pardee Management LibraryBorrow it
    595 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.349626 -71.099547
  • Howard Gotlieb Archival Research CenterBorrow it
    771 Commonwealth Avenue, 5th Floor, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.350723 -71.108227
  • Mugar Memorial LibraryBorrow it
    771 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.350723 -71.108227
  • Music LibraryBorrow it
    771 Commonwealth Avenue, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.350723 -71.108227
  • Pikering Educational Resources LibraryBorrow it
    2 Silber Way, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.349804 -71.101425
  • School of Theology LibraryBorrow it
    745 Commonwealth Avenue, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.350494 -71.107235
  • Science & Engineering LibraryBorrow it
    38 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.348472 -71.102257
  • Stone Science LibraryBorrow it
    675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, 02445, US
    42.350103 -71.103784
Processing Feedback ...