The Resource Iraq : oil-for-food program, illicit trade, and investigations, Kenneth Katzman, Christopher M. Blanchard

Iraq : oil-for-food program, illicit trade, and investigations, Kenneth Katzman, Christopher M. Blanchard

Label
Iraq : oil-for-food program, illicit trade, and investigations
Title
Iraq
Title remainder
oil-for-food program, illicit trade, and investigations
Statement of responsibility
Kenneth Katzman, Christopher M. Blanchard
Title variation
OFFP, illicit trade, and investigations
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
The "oil-for-food" program (OFFP) was the centerpiece of a long-standing U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining key elements of the 1991 Gulf war-related sanctions regime. In order to ensure that Iraq remained contained and that only humanitarian needs were served by the program, the program imposed controls on Iraqi oil exports and humanitarian imports. All Iraqi oil revenues legally earned under the program were held in a U.N.-controlled escrow account and were not accessible to the regime of Saddam Hussein. The program was in operation from December 1996 until March 2003. Observers generally agree that the program substantially eased, but did not eliminate, human suffering in Iraq. Concerns about the program's early difficulties prompted criticism of the United States; critics asserted that the U.S. strategy was to maintain sanctions on Iraq indefinitely as a means of weakening Saddam Hussein's grip on power. At the same time, growing regional and international sympathy for the Iraqi people resulted in a pronounced relaxation of regional enforcement -- or even open defiance -- of the Iraq sanctions. The United States and other members of the United Nations Security Council were aware of billions of dollars in oil sales by Iraq to its neighbors in violation of the U.N. sanctions regime and outside of the OFFP, but did not take action to punish states engaged in illicit oil trading with Saddam Hussein's regime. Successive Administrations issued annual waivers to Congress exempting Turkey and Jordan from unilateral U.S. sanctions for their violations of U.N. oil embargo on Iraq. Until 2002, the United States argued that continued U.N. sanctions were critical to preventing Iraq from acquiring equipment that could be used to reconstitute banned weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs. In 2002, the Bush Administration asserted that sanctions were not sufficient to contain a mounting threat from Saddam Hussein's regime and the Administration decided that the military overthrow of that regime had become necessary
Member of
Cataloging source
SNM
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Katzman, Kenneth
Government publication
federal national government publication
Illustrations
  • illustrations
  • charts
Index
no index present
LC call number
HF1418.7
LC item number
.K38 2005eb
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
bibliography
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
  • Blanchard, Christopher M
  • Library of Congress.
Series statement
CRS report for Congress
Series volume
RL30472
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • United Nations
  • United Nations
  • United Nations
  • Humanitarian assistance
  • Food relief
  • International relief
  • Petroleum industry and trade
  • Economic sanctions
  • Corruption
  • Economic sanctions
  • Food relief
  • Humanitarian assistance
  • International relief
  • Petroleum industry and trade
  • Iraq
Label
Iraq : oil-for-food program, illicit trade, and investigations, Kenneth Katzman, Christopher M. Blanchard
Instantiates
Publication
Note
  • "Updated March 21, 2005."
  • Title from title screen (viewed June 6, 2005)
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references and appendix
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
Background and structure for the Oil-for-Food Program -- Allegations and investigations -- Non-Oil-for-Food Program illicit trade: trade protocols, illicit oil sales, and oil smuggling -- Oil-for-Food Program: allegations of mismanagement and abuse -- Other issues and allegations -- Issues for Congress
Extent
27 pages
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Hein Online
Other physical details
illustrations, chart.
System control number
  • (OCoLC)60562342
  • (OCoLC)ocm60562342
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader
Label
Iraq : oil-for-food program, illicit trade, and investigations, Kenneth Katzman, Christopher M. Blanchard
Publication
Note
  • "Updated March 21, 2005."
  • Title from title screen (viewed June 6, 2005)
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references and appendix
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
Background and structure for the Oil-for-Food Program -- Allegations and investigations -- Non-Oil-for-Food Program illicit trade: trade protocols, illicit oil sales, and oil smuggling -- Oil-for-Food Program: allegations of mismanagement and abuse -- Other issues and allegations -- Issues for Congress
Extent
27 pages
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Hein Online
Other physical details
illustrations, chart.
System control number
  • (OCoLC)60562342
  • (OCoLC)ocm60562342
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader

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