The Resource The Religious experience of the Roman people, from the earliest times to the age of Augustus : the Gifford lectures for 1909-10, delivered in Edinburgh University by W. Warde Fowler ..

The Religious experience of the Roman people, from the earliest times to the age of Augustus : the Gifford lectures for 1909-10, delivered in Edinburgh University by W. Warde Fowler ..

Label
The Religious experience of the Roman people, from the earliest times to the age of Augustus : the Gifford lectures for 1909-10
Title
The Religious experience of the Roman people, from the earliest times to the age of Augustus
Title remainder
the Gifford lectures for 1909-10
Statement of responsibility
delivered in Edinburgh University by W. Warde Fowler ..
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Subject
Language
eng
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Cataloging source
DLC
http://library.link/vocab/creatorDate
1847-1921
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Fowler, W. Warde
Index
index present
LC call number
BL801
LC item number
.F7
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non fiction
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bibliography
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Rome
  • Rome (Empire)
  • Cults
  • Philosophy, Ancient
  • Experience (Religion)
  • Religieuze ervaring
  • Geloofsbeleving
  • Totemisme
  • Magie
  • Familie
  • Fetisjisme
  • Goden
  • Riten
  • Religieuze leiders
  • Cults
  • Experience (Religion)
  • Philosophy, Ancient
  • Religion
Label
The Religious experience of the Roman people, from the earliest times to the age of Augustus : the Gifford lectures for 1909-10, delivered in Edinburgh University by W. Warde Fowler ..
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Antecedent source
file reproduced from original
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Includes bibliographical references and index
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black and white
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text
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txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Lecture I. Introductory -- Accounts of the Roman religion in recent standard works; a hard and highly formalized system -- Its interest lies partly in this fact -- How did it come to be so? -- This is the main question of the first epoch of Roman religious experience -- Roman religion and Roman law compared -- Roman religion a technical subject -- What we mean by religion -- A useful definition applied to the plan of lectures I.-X.; including (1) survivals of primitive or quasi-magical religion; (2) the religion of the agriculture family; (3) that of the city-state, in its simplest form, and in its first period of expansion -- Difficulties of the subject; present position of knowledge and criticism -- Help obtainable from (1) archaeology, (2) anthropology -- Lecture II. On the threshold of religion: survivals -- Survival at Rome of previous eras of quasi-religious experience -- Totemism not discernible -- Taboo, and the means adopted of escaping from it; both survived at Rome into an age of real religion -- Examples: impurity (or holiness) of new-born infants; of a corpse; of women in certain worships; of strangers; of criminals -- Almost complete absence of blood-taboo -- Iron -- Strange taboos on the priest of Jupiter and his wife -- Holy or tabooed places; holy or tabooed days; the word religious as applied to both of these -- Lecture III. On the threshold of religion: magic -- Magic; distinction between magic and religion -- Religious authorities seek to exclude magic, and did so at Rome -- Few survivals of magic in the state religion -- The aquaelicium -- Vestals and runaway slaves -- The magical whipping at the Lupercalia -- The throwing of puppets from the pons sublicius -- Magical processes surviving in religious ritual with their meaning lost -- Private magic: excantatio in the XII -- Tables; other spells or carmina -- Amulets: the bulla; oscilla -- Lecture IV. The religion of the family -- Continuity of the religion of the Latin agricultural family -- What the family was; its relation to the gens
  • The familia as settled on the land, an economic unit, embodied in a pagus -- The house as the religious centre of the familia; its holy places -- Vesta, Penates, Genius, and the spirit of the doorway -- The Lar familiaris on the land -- Festival of the lar belongs to the religion of the pagus; other festivals of the pagus -- Religio terminorum -- Religion of the household: marriage, childbirth, burial and cult of the dead -- Lecture V. The calendar of Numa -- Beginnings of the city-state: the oppidum -- The earliest historical Rome, the city o the four regions; to this belongs the surviving religious calendar -- This calendar described; the basis of our knowledge of early Roman religion -- It expresses a life agricultural, political, and military -- Days of gods distinguished from days of man -- Agricultural life and real basis of the calendar; gradual effacement of it -- Results of a fixed routine in calendar; discipline, religious confidence -- Exclusion from it of the barbarous and grotesque -- Decency and order under an organizing priestly authority -- Lecture VI. The divine objects of worship -- Sources of knowledge about Roman deities -- What did the Romans themselves know about them? -- No personal deity in the religion of the family -- Those of the city-state are numina, marking a transition from animism to polytheism -- Meaning of numen -- Importance of names, which are chiefly adjectival, marking functional activity -- Tellus as exception -- Importance of priests in development of dei -- The four great Roman gods and their priests: Janus, Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus -- Characteristics of each of these in earliest Rome -- Juno and the difficulties she presents -- Vest -- Lecture VII. The deities of the earliest religion: general characteristics -- No temples in the earliest Rome; meaning of fanum, ara, lucus, sacellum -- No images of gods in these places, until end of regal period -- Thus deities not conceived as persons -- Though masculine and feminine they were not married pairs; Dr. Frazer's opinion on this point -- Examination of his evidence derived from the libri sacerdotum; meanin of Nerio Martis -- Such combinations of names suggest forms or manifestations of a deity's activity, not likely to grow into personal deities without Greek help -- Meaning of pater and mater applied to deities; procreation not indicate by them -- The deities of the indigitamenta; priestly inventions of a later age -- Usener's theory of Sondergotter criticized so far as it applies to Rome
  • Lecture VIII. Ritual of the ius divinum -- Main object of ius divinum to keep up the pax deorum; meaning of pax in this phrase -- Means towards the maintenance of the pax; sacrifice and prayer, fulfillment of vows, lustratio, divination -- Meaning of sacrificium -- Little trace of sacramental sacrifice -- Typical sacrifice of ius divinum: both priest and victim must be acceptable to the deity; means taken to secure this -- Ritual of slaughter: examination and porrectio of entrails -- Prayer; the phrase Macte esto and its importance in explaining Roman sacrifice -- Magical survivals in Roman and Italian prayers; yet they are essentially religious -- Lecture IX. Ritual (continued) -- Vota (vows) have suggested the idea that Roman worship was bargaining -- Examination of private vows, which do not prove this; of public vows, which in some degree do so -- Moral elements both these -- Other forms of vow: evocation and devotion -- Lustratio: meaning of lustrare in successive stages of Roman experience -- Lustratio of the farm and pagus; of the city; of the people (at Rome and Iguvium); fo the army; of the arms and trumpets of the army: meaning of lustratio in these last cases, both before and after a campaign -- Lecture X. The first arrival of new cults in Rome -- Recapitulation of foregoing lectures -- Weak point of the organized state religion: it discouraged individual development -- Its moral influence mainly a disciplinary one; and it hypnotized the religious instinct -- Growth of a new population at end of regal period, also of trade and industry -- New deities from abroad represent these changes: Hercules of Ara Maxima: Castor and Pollux; Minerva -- Diana of the Aventine reflects a new relation with Latium -- Question as to the real religious influence of these deities -- The Capitoline temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, of Etruscan origin -- Meaning of cult-titles Optimus Maximus, and significance of this great Jupiter in Roman religious experience
  • Lecture XI. Contact of the Old and New in religion -- Plan of this and following lectures -- The formalized Roman religion meets with perils, material and moral, and ultimately proves inadequate -- Subject of this lecture, the introduction of Greek deities and rites; but first a proof that the Romans were a really religious people; evidence from literature, from worship, from the practice of public life, and from Latin religious vocabulary -- Temple of Ceres, Liber, Libera (Demeter, Dionysus, Persephone); its importance for the date of Sibylline influence at Rome -- Nature of this influence; how and when it reached Rome -- The keepers of the "Sibylline books"; new cults introduced by them -- New rites; lectisternia and supplications, their meaning and historical importance -- Lecture XII. The Pontifices and the secularization of religion -- Historical facts about the Pontifices in this period; a powerful exclusive "collegiums" taking charge of the ius divinum -- The legal side of their work; they administered the oldest rules of law, which belonged to the ius -- New ideas of law after Etruscan period; increasing social complexity and its effect on legal matters; result, publication of rules of law, civil and religious, in XII -- Tables, and abolition of legal monopoly of Pontifices -- But they keep control of (1) procedure, (2) interpretation, till end of fourth century B.C. -- Publication of Fasti and Legis actions; the college opened to Plebeians -- Work of Pontifices in third century: (1) admission of new deities, (2) compilation of annals, (3) collection of religious formulae -- General result; formalization of religion; and secularization of pontifical influence
  • Lecture XIII. The Augurs and the art of divination -- Divination a universal practice: its relation to magic -- Want of a comprehensive treatment of it -- Its object at Rome: to assure oneself of the pax deorum; but it was the most futile method used -- Private divination; limited and discouraged by the state, except in the form of family auspicial -- Public divination; auspicial needed in all state operations; close connection with imperium -- The augurs were skilled advisers of the magistrates, but could not themselves take the auspices -- Probable result of this: Rome escaped subjection to a hierarchy -- Augurs and auspicial become politically important, but cease to belong to religion -- State divination a clog on political progress -- Sinister influence on Rome of Etruscan divination; history of the haruspices -- Lecture XIV. The Hannibalic War -- Tendency towards contempt of religious forms in third century B.C.; disappears during this war -- Religio in the old sense take its place, i.e. fear and anxiety -- This takes the form of reporting prodigia; account of these in 218 B.C., and of the prescriptions supplied by Sibylline books -- Fresh outbreak of religio after battle of Trasimene; lectisternium of 216, without distinction of Greek and Roman deities; importance of this -- Religious panic after battle of Cannae; extraordinary religious measures, including human sacrifice -- Embassy to Delphi and its result; symptoms of renewed confidence -- But fresh and alarming outbreak in 213; met with remarkable skill -- Institution of Apolline games -- Summary of religious history in last year of the war; gratitude to the gods after battle of metaurus -- Arrival of the great mother of Phrygia at Rome -- Hannibal leaves Italy -- Lecture XV. After the Hannibalic War -- Religion used to support Senatorial policy in declaring war (1) with Philip of Macedon, (2) with Antiochus of Syria; but this is not the old religion -- Use of prodigia and Sibylline oracles to secure political and personal objects; mischief caused in this way -- Growth of individualism; rebellion of the individual against the ius divinum -- Examples of this from the history of the priesthoods; strange story of a Flamen Dialis -- The story of the introduction of Bacchic rites in 186 B.C.; interference of the senate magistrates, and significance of this -- Strange attempt to propagate Pythagoreanism; this also death with by the government -- Influence of Ennius and Plautus, and a of translations from Greek comedy, on the dying Roman religion
  • Lecture XVI. Greek philosophy and Roman religion -- Religious destitution of the Roman in second century B.C. in regard to (1) his idea of God, (2) his sense of duty -- No help from Epicurism, which provided no religious sanction for conduct; Lecretius, and Epicurean idea of the divine -- Arrival of stoicism at Rome; Panaetius and the Scipionic circle -- Character of Scipio -- The religious side of stoicism; it teaches a ne4w doctrine of the relation of man to God -- Stoic idea of God as reason,and as pervading the universe; adjustment of this to Roman idea of numina -- Stoic idea of man as possessing reason, and so partaking the divine nature -- Influence of these two idea on the best type of Roman; they appeal to his idea of duty, and ennoble his idea of Law -- Weak point in Roman stoicism: (1) doctrine of will, (2) neglect of emotions and sympathy -- It failed to rouse an "enthusiasm of humanity" -- Lecture XVII. Mysticism -- Ideas of a future life -- Early Pythagoreanism in S. Italy; its reappearance in last century B.C. under the influence of Posidonius, who combined Stoicism with Platonic Pythagoreanism -- Cicero affected by this revival; his Somnium Scipionis and other later works -- His mysticism takes practical form on the death of his daughter; letters to Atticus about a fanum -- Individualization of the Manes; freedom of belief on such questions -- Further evidence of Cicero's tendency to mysticism at this time (45 B.C.), and his belief in a future life -- But did the ordinary Roman so believe? -- Question whether he really believed in the torments of Hades -- Probability of this: explanation to be found in the influence of Etruscan art and Greek plays on primitive Roman ideas of the dead -- Mysticism in the form of astrology; Nigidius Figulus -- Lecture XVIII. Religious feeling in the poems of Virgil -- Virgil sums up Roman religious experience, and combines it with hope for the future -- Sense of depression in his day; want of sympathy and goodwill towards men -- Virgil's sympathetic outlook; shown in his treatment of animals, Italian scenery, man's labor, and man's worship -- His idea of pietas -- The theme of the Aeneid; Rome's mission in the world, and the pietas needed to carry it out -- Development of the character of Aeneas; his pietas imperfect in the first six books, perfected in the last six, resulting in a balance between the ideas of the individual and the state -- Illustration of this from the poem -- Importance of Book vi., which describes the ordeal destined to perfect the pietas of the hero -- The sense of duty never afterwards deserts him; his pietas enlarged in a religious sense -- Lecture. The Augustan Revival -- Connection of Augustus and Virgil -- Augustus aims at re-establishing the national pietus, and securing the pax deorum by means of the ius divinum -- How this formed part of his political plans -- Temple restoration and its practical result -- Revival of the ancient ritual; illustrated from the records of the Arval Brethren -- The new element in it; Caesar-worship; but Augustus was content with the honor of re-establishing the pax deorum -- Celebration of this in the Ludi Saeculares, 17 B.C. -- Our detailed knowledge of this festival; meaning of Saeculum; description of the Ludi, and illustration of their meaning from the Carmen Saeculare of Horace -- Discussion of the performance of this hymn by the choirs of boys and girls -- Lecture XX. Conclusion -- Religious ingredients in Roman soil likely to be utilized by Christianity -- The Stoic ingredient; revelation of the universal, and ennobling of individual -- The contribution of Virgil; sympathy and sense of duty -- The contribution of Roman religion proper; (1) sane and orderly character of ritual, (2) practical character of Latin Christianity visible in early Christian writings, (3) a religious vocabulary, e.g. religio, pietas, sanctus, sacramentum -- But all this is but a slight contribution; essential difference between Christianity and all that preceded it in Italy; illustration from the language of St. Paul -- Appendix -- I. On the use of huts or booths in religion ritual -- II. Prof. Deubner's theory of the Lupercalia -- III. The pairs of deities in Gellius xii. 23 -- IV. The early usage of the words ius and fas -- V. The worship of sacred utensils
Dimensions
23 cm
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
xviii, 504 pages
Lccn
12000395
Level of compression
  • lossless
  • lossy
Media category
unmediated
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
n
Other control number
001392580
Reformatting quality
  • preservation
  • access
Reproduction note
Also available as electronic reproduction.
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
(OCoLC)173972
Label
The Religious experience of the Roman people, from the earliest times to the age of Augustus : the Gifford lectures for 1909-10, delivered in Edinburgh University by W. Warde Fowler ..
Link
Publication
Antecedent source
file reproduced from original
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references and index
Color
black and white
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Lecture I. Introductory -- Accounts of the Roman religion in recent standard works; a hard and highly formalized system -- Its interest lies partly in this fact -- How did it come to be so? -- This is the main question of the first epoch of Roman religious experience -- Roman religion and Roman law compared -- Roman religion a technical subject -- What we mean by religion -- A useful definition applied to the plan of lectures I.-X.; including (1) survivals of primitive or quasi-magical religion; (2) the religion of the agriculture family; (3) that of the city-state, in its simplest form, and in its first period of expansion -- Difficulties of the subject; present position of knowledge and criticism -- Help obtainable from (1) archaeology, (2) anthropology -- Lecture II. On the threshold of religion: survivals -- Survival at Rome of previous eras of quasi-religious experience -- Totemism not discernible -- Taboo, and the means adopted of escaping from it; both survived at Rome into an age of real religion -- Examples: impurity (or holiness) of new-born infants; of a corpse; of women in certain worships; of strangers; of criminals -- Almost complete absence of blood-taboo -- Iron -- Strange taboos on the priest of Jupiter and his wife -- Holy or tabooed places; holy or tabooed days; the word religious as applied to both of these -- Lecture III. On the threshold of religion: magic -- Magic; distinction between magic and religion -- Religious authorities seek to exclude magic, and did so at Rome -- Few survivals of magic in the state religion -- The aquaelicium -- Vestals and runaway slaves -- The magical whipping at the Lupercalia -- The throwing of puppets from the pons sublicius -- Magical processes surviving in religious ritual with their meaning lost -- Private magic: excantatio in the XII -- Tables; other spells or carmina -- Amulets: the bulla; oscilla -- Lecture IV. The religion of the family -- Continuity of the religion of the Latin agricultural family -- What the family was; its relation to the gens
  • The familia as settled on the land, an economic unit, embodied in a pagus -- The house as the religious centre of the familia; its holy places -- Vesta, Penates, Genius, and the spirit of the doorway -- The Lar familiaris on the land -- Festival of the lar belongs to the religion of the pagus; other festivals of the pagus -- Religio terminorum -- Religion of the household: marriage, childbirth, burial and cult of the dead -- Lecture V. The calendar of Numa -- Beginnings of the city-state: the oppidum -- The earliest historical Rome, the city o the four regions; to this belongs the surviving religious calendar -- This calendar described; the basis of our knowledge of early Roman religion -- It expresses a life agricultural, political, and military -- Days of gods distinguished from days of man -- Agricultural life and real basis of the calendar; gradual effacement of it -- Results of a fixed routine in calendar; discipline, religious confidence -- Exclusion from it of the barbarous and grotesque -- Decency and order under an organizing priestly authority -- Lecture VI. The divine objects of worship -- Sources of knowledge about Roman deities -- What did the Romans themselves know about them? -- No personal deity in the religion of the family -- Those of the city-state are numina, marking a transition from animism to polytheism -- Meaning of numen -- Importance of names, which are chiefly adjectival, marking functional activity -- Tellus as exception -- Importance of priests in development of dei -- The four great Roman gods and their priests: Janus, Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus -- Characteristics of each of these in earliest Rome -- Juno and the difficulties she presents -- Vest -- Lecture VII. The deities of the earliest religion: general characteristics -- No temples in the earliest Rome; meaning of fanum, ara, lucus, sacellum -- No images of gods in these places, until end of regal period -- Thus deities not conceived as persons -- Though masculine and feminine they were not married pairs; Dr. Frazer's opinion on this point -- Examination of his evidence derived from the libri sacerdotum; meanin of Nerio Martis -- Such combinations of names suggest forms or manifestations of a deity's activity, not likely to grow into personal deities without Greek help -- Meaning of pater and mater applied to deities; procreation not indicate by them -- The deities of the indigitamenta; priestly inventions of a later age -- Usener's theory of Sondergotter criticized so far as it applies to Rome
  • Lecture VIII. Ritual of the ius divinum -- Main object of ius divinum to keep up the pax deorum; meaning of pax in this phrase -- Means towards the maintenance of the pax; sacrifice and prayer, fulfillment of vows, lustratio, divination -- Meaning of sacrificium -- Little trace of sacramental sacrifice -- Typical sacrifice of ius divinum: both priest and victim must be acceptable to the deity; means taken to secure this -- Ritual of slaughter: examination and porrectio of entrails -- Prayer; the phrase Macte esto and its importance in explaining Roman sacrifice -- Magical survivals in Roman and Italian prayers; yet they are essentially religious -- Lecture IX. Ritual (continued) -- Vota (vows) have suggested the idea that Roman worship was bargaining -- Examination of private vows, which do not prove this; of public vows, which in some degree do so -- Moral elements both these -- Other forms of vow: evocation and devotion -- Lustratio: meaning of lustrare in successive stages of Roman experience -- Lustratio of the farm and pagus; of the city; of the people (at Rome and Iguvium); fo the army; of the arms and trumpets of the army: meaning of lustratio in these last cases, both before and after a campaign -- Lecture X. The first arrival of new cults in Rome -- Recapitulation of foregoing lectures -- Weak point of the organized state religion: it discouraged individual development -- Its moral influence mainly a disciplinary one; and it hypnotized the religious instinct -- Growth of a new population at end of regal period, also of trade and industry -- New deities from abroad represent these changes: Hercules of Ara Maxima: Castor and Pollux; Minerva -- Diana of the Aventine reflects a new relation with Latium -- Question as to the real religious influence of these deities -- The Capitoline temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, of Etruscan origin -- Meaning of cult-titles Optimus Maximus, and significance of this great Jupiter in Roman religious experience
  • Lecture XI. Contact of the Old and New in religion -- Plan of this and following lectures -- The formalized Roman religion meets with perils, material and moral, and ultimately proves inadequate -- Subject of this lecture, the introduction of Greek deities and rites; but first a proof that the Romans were a really religious people; evidence from literature, from worship, from the practice of public life, and from Latin religious vocabulary -- Temple of Ceres, Liber, Libera (Demeter, Dionysus, Persephone); its importance for the date of Sibylline influence at Rome -- Nature of this influence; how and when it reached Rome -- The keepers of the "Sibylline books"; new cults introduced by them -- New rites; lectisternia and supplications, their meaning and historical importance -- Lecture XII. The Pontifices and the secularization of religion -- Historical facts about the Pontifices in this period; a powerful exclusive "collegiums" taking charge of the ius divinum -- The legal side of their work; they administered the oldest rules of law, which belonged to the ius -- New ideas of law after Etruscan period; increasing social complexity and its effect on legal matters; result, publication of rules of law, civil and religious, in XII -- Tables, and abolition of legal monopoly of Pontifices -- But they keep control of (1) procedure, (2) interpretation, till end of fourth century B.C. -- Publication of Fasti and Legis actions; the college opened to Plebeians -- Work of Pontifices in third century: (1) admission of new deities, (2) compilation of annals, (3) collection of religious formulae -- General result; formalization of religion; and secularization of pontifical influence
  • Lecture XIII. The Augurs and the art of divination -- Divination a universal practice: its relation to magic -- Want of a comprehensive treatment of it -- Its object at Rome: to assure oneself of the pax deorum; but it was the most futile method used -- Private divination; limited and discouraged by the state, except in the form of family auspicial -- Public divination; auspicial needed in all state operations; close connection with imperium -- The augurs were skilled advisers of the magistrates, but could not themselves take the auspices -- Probable result of this: Rome escaped subjection to a hierarchy -- Augurs and auspicial become politically important, but cease to belong to religion -- State divination a clog on political progress -- Sinister influence on Rome of Etruscan divination; history of the haruspices -- Lecture XIV. The Hannibalic War -- Tendency towards contempt of religious forms in third century B.C.; disappears during this war -- Religio in the old sense take its place, i.e. fear and anxiety -- This takes the form of reporting prodigia; account of these in 218 B.C., and of the prescriptions supplied by Sibylline books -- Fresh outbreak of religio after battle of Trasimene; lectisternium of 216, without distinction of Greek and Roman deities; importance of this -- Religious panic after battle of Cannae; extraordinary religious measures, including human sacrifice -- Embassy to Delphi and its result; symptoms of renewed confidence -- But fresh and alarming outbreak in 213; met with remarkable skill -- Institution of Apolline games -- Summary of religious history in last year of the war; gratitude to the gods after battle of metaurus -- Arrival of the great mother of Phrygia at Rome -- Hannibal leaves Italy -- Lecture XV. After the Hannibalic War -- Religion used to support Senatorial policy in declaring war (1) with Philip of Macedon, (2) with Antiochus of Syria; but this is not the old religion -- Use of prodigia and Sibylline oracles to secure political and personal objects; mischief caused in this way -- Growth of individualism; rebellion of the individual against the ius divinum -- Examples of this from the history of the priesthoods; strange story of a Flamen Dialis -- The story of the introduction of Bacchic rites in 186 B.C.; interference of the senate magistrates, and significance of this -- Strange attempt to propagate Pythagoreanism; this also death with by the government -- Influence of Ennius and Plautus, and a of translations from Greek comedy, on the dying Roman religion
  • Lecture XVI. Greek philosophy and Roman religion -- Religious destitution of the Roman in second century B.C. in regard to (1) his idea of God, (2) his sense of duty -- No help from Epicurism, which provided no religious sanction for conduct; Lecretius, and Epicurean idea of the divine -- Arrival of stoicism at Rome; Panaetius and the Scipionic circle -- Character of Scipio -- The religious side of stoicism; it teaches a ne4w doctrine of the relation of man to God -- Stoic idea of God as reason,and as pervading the universe; adjustment of this to Roman idea of numina -- Stoic idea of man as possessing reason, and so partaking the divine nature -- Influence of these two idea on the best type of Roman; they appeal to his idea of duty, and ennoble his idea of Law -- Weak point in Roman stoicism: (1) doctrine of will, (2) neglect of emotions and sympathy -- It failed to rouse an "enthusiasm of humanity" -- Lecture XVII. Mysticism -- Ideas of a future life -- Early Pythagoreanism in S. Italy; its reappearance in last century B.C. under the influence of Posidonius, who combined Stoicism with Platonic Pythagoreanism -- Cicero affected by this revival; his Somnium Scipionis and other later works -- His mysticism takes practical form on the death of his daughter; letters to Atticus about a fanum -- Individualization of the Manes; freedom of belief on such questions -- Further evidence of Cicero's tendency to mysticism at this time (45 B.C.), and his belief in a future life -- But did the ordinary Roman so believe? -- Question whether he really believed in the torments of Hades -- Probability of this: explanation to be found in the influence of Etruscan art and Greek plays on primitive Roman ideas of the dead -- Mysticism in the form of astrology; Nigidius Figulus -- Lecture XVIII. Religious feeling in the poems of Virgil -- Virgil sums up Roman religious experience, and combines it with hope for the future -- Sense of depression in his day; want of sympathy and goodwill towards men -- Virgil's sympathetic outlook; shown in his treatment of animals, Italian scenery, man's labor, and man's worship -- His idea of pietas -- The theme of the Aeneid; Rome's mission in the world, and the pietas needed to carry it out -- Development of the character of Aeneas; his pietas imperfect in the first six books, perfected in the last six, resulting in a balance between the ideas of the individual and the state -- Illustration of this from the poem -- Importance of Book vi., which describes the ordeal destined to perfect the pietas of the hero -- The sense of duty never afterwards deserts him; his pietas enlarged in a religious sense -- Lecture. The Augustan Revival -- Connection of Augustus and Virgil -- Augustus aims at re-establishing the national pietus, and securing the pax deorum by means of the ius divinum -- How this formed part of his political plans -- Temple restoration and its practical result -- Revival of the ancient ritual; illustrated from the records of the Arval Brethren -- The new element in it; Caesar-worship; but Augustus was content with the honor of re-establishing the pax deorum -- Celebration of this in the Ludi Saeculares, 17 B.C. -- Our detailed knowledge of this festival; meaning of Saeculum; description of the Ludi, and illustration of their meaning from the Carmen Saeculare of Horace -- Discussion of the performance of this hymn by the choirs of boys and girls -- Lecture XX. Conclusion -- Religious ingredients in Roman soil likely to be utilized by Christianity -- The Stoic ingredient; revelation of the universal, and ennobling of individual -- The contribution of Virgil; sympathy and sense of duty -- The contribution of Roman religion proper; (1) sane and orderly character of ritual, (2) practical character of Latin Christianity visible in early Christian writings, (3) a religious vocabulary, e.g. religio, pietas, sanctus, sacramentum -- But all this is but a slight contribution; essential difference between Christianity and all that preceded it in Italy; illustration from the language of St. Paul -- Appendix -- I. On the use of huts or booths in religion ritual -- II. Prof. Deubner's theory of the Lupercalia -- III. The pairs of deities in Gellius xii. 23 -- IV. The early usage of the words ius and fas -- V. The worship of sacred utensils
Dimensions
23 cm
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
xviii, 504 pages
Lccn
12000395
Level of compression
  • lossless
  • lossy
Media category
unmediated
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
n
Other control number
001392580
Reformatting quality
  • preservation
  • access
Reproduction note
Also available as electronic reproduction.
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
(OCoLC)173972

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    2 Silber Way, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.349804 -71.101425
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    745 Commonwealth Avenue, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.350494 -71.107235
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    38 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA, 02215, US
    42.348472 -71.102257
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    675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, 02445, US
    42.350103 -71.103784
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